The paradigm shift: the emergence of the integrated education public action in Hungary

This excerpt investigates how the policy paradigm shift took place in the conceptualization and targeting of measures under discussion within the Hungarian education policy space. Read more ...


Competing and contested knowledges in the case of the integrated education public action in Hungary

The SDS policy domain gained shape after 2002, yet the conflict of knowledge and knowledge holders roots in scientific debates that started prior the policy. Conflicts between scientific paradigms (1) stem from epistemological differences, conflicts between knowledge forms (2) escalated through the policy process, and some of these conflicts (3) were also rephrased in the public debates. Meanwhile, holders of various disciplinary knowledges hardly compatible in the scientific domain, to... Read more ...


Knowledge Policies in the Hungarian Integrated Education Case Study

Our research results imply that instead of asking how policy-makers influence the conditions of knowledge production, it seems more revealing to discuss the strategies of social scientists and policy-makers to cooperate and share knowledge in a co-constructive process. We argue that this relationship cannot be described with the traditional commander-supplier knowledge economy order, but rather as co-dependence in which the negotiating partners collectively shape the content of the contract... Read more ...


New Regulatory Instruments: Assemblages of Knowledge and Policy Constellations in the case of the Hungary’s Integrated Education Public Action

Some of our findings indicate that a shift from government to governance takes place, yet traditional bureaucratic practices of regulation coexist and are complemented by post-bureaucratic policy instruments that follow the logic of the accountability regime. Read more ...


The influence of Local Decision-Makers, Street-Level Bureaucrats and Lay Actors in the Making of the Hungarian Integrated Education Public Action

The broad term of local knowledge can result in diverse meanings. In what follows we will discuss (a) knowledge as a tool for creating local policies by local public officials such as local decision-makers and members of the city administration; (b) the knowledge of street-level practitioners; and (c) the knowledge of laymen users of education services. Read more ...


Travelling Policies beyond the National Borders: The Case of the Hungarian Integrated Education Public Action

This paper concentrates on the interaction of global and foreign ideas and domestic policies. More specifically, this paper discusses the activity of supranational, transnational and non-governmental actors involved in developing the discourse of equity and desegregation after 2010. Read more ...


The Media’s Role in Hungary’s Education Integration

Compared to other education policies it is not an exaggeration to say that both the integration of Severely Socially Disadvantaged Students and Roma integration Public Action have triggered a broad and evolving public debate. This public action has resulted to be one of the most contested and media influenced education policies of the last decade in Hungary. In written media and telecommunications the main lines of debate has been structured along ideological-political borders; namely along... Read more ...


The Influence of Europe in the Hungarian Integrated Education Case Study

1. The political influence of the European Union In the nineties, Hungary was repeatedly warmed by international organizations such as the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI, 2000/5., Par. 29.) and the UN Committee on the elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD, 2002, Par. 382.) for the educational discrimination of the Roma. Yet the European accession was exploited in communicative terms but did not mean a real pressure factor. “Hungary joined the EU in 2004.... Read more ...


“Missing Knowledge” in the case of the Hungarian Integrated Education Public Action

How do policy makers tackle situations when they realize that their knowledge is insufficient for planning policies? And, what exactly are these gaps in knowledge? This section looks at the making of the Hungarian integrated education policy and attempts to answer these questions. Read more ...


The politics of seating charts: a case-study of integrated education public action in Hungary

The abstract of the Orientation 2/2 report from the Hungarian education team (Neumann et al. 2010) discussed the relations between knowledge and policy throughout the fabrication of the integrated education public action in Hungary. We present herein a short outline of the report. Read more ...


Lacking Knowledge in the case of Special Education Policy in Hungary

In an era of post-bureaucratic regulation, transnationalisation and evidence-based policies, the appeal for change in any policy domain is always an appeal for research and expertise (both national and international). Knowledge and cognitive authority legitimize public policies. ―Evidence‖ is often lacking, though. Read more ...


The Role of Local Actors in the Special Education Policy in Hungary

A lack of public debate, lack of listening to the voice of local actors is the most commonly articulated criticism to the events of the PA, most decisions were made top-down, with very little influence by local actors, especially at the beginning of the program. Read more ...


International Influence on the Special Education Policy in Hungary

The most popular international instrument of the Educational field, PISA, did not affect the SEN-field (directly): "In the PISA survey the sample‘s margin of error is 5 % and since the rate of SEN children is usually below 5 %, in most of the countries these children were not included in the analysis. It is especially true for countries where these children go to segregated schools or special classes". But there is a series of SEN-specific international institutions and instruments. The... Read more ...


The Role of Media in Special Education Policy in Hungary

Public coverage of the Last Desk Program can be considered as limited (as compared to parallel government programs); but the contrary could also be true: the issue (of the Roma unduly diagnosed as mentally retarded) had got quite a big publicity. Read more ...


Knowledge-Policy constellations in the field of Special Education Policy in Hungary

Knowledge-Policy constellations are either distinct technologies of governance, or, more simply, highly observable crystallized forms of regular interaction that lead to the incorporation of specific SEN related knowledges into the public action. Read more ...


Conflicting knowledge forms in the field of Special Education Policy in Hungary

Some of the conflicts are epistemic controversies that occur both within and between disciplines. Read more ...


Paradigm shift in Special Education Policy in Hungary

The paradigm shift can be interpreted as the introduction of novel policy concerns (de-segregation and inclusion) inspired by novel experts, instead of state bureaucratic regulation modes, along with the emergence of conflicting disciplinary knowledges. Read more ...


Researching the Special Education Policy in Hungary

The objective of the public action studied by the Hungarian health team was to reduce the number of students with special educational needs [SEN] and to fight the over representation of ethnic Roma and lower class in segregated educational settings (special schools and classes). Read more ...


Targeting as a selective practice

The point of targeting was the most interesting one in the constellations where knowledge and policy unite. One of the main functions of Education systems is selection – and especially the Bavarian school systems tends to selecting. Read more ...


Legitimation by affliction

Transcending and overshadowing all forms of knowledge in the political process is a kind of knowledge we call “moral knowledge”. Read more ...


Governmental knowledge vs. oppositional knowledge

In this way, the boundaries of the knowledge mobilized by one party constitute the potential horizon of knowledge mobilized by the opposing one. In this case, the unwillingness or ignorance of the majority party to adopt scientific recommendations of integration experts, to secure financing and appropriate equipment (i.e. economic aspects) for the schools and to acknowledge statistical data depicting a severe selectiveness of the Bavarian school system defines exactly the knowledge areas... Read more ...


Knowledge and feasability

So, concludingly, the functional knowledge on the part of the CSU in the decision-making process seems to have been mainly personal knowledge about the feasibility and acceptability of political decisions gleaned in personal hearings with local actors, visits of schools etc., and institutional/legal knowledge about the present structures of the education sector and the social fields potentially affected by the amendment, including the possible feedback into the political process in the form... Read more ...


Knowledge: a precondition for policy?

This practice of negotiating the internal political will first, and then searching for knowledge supporting this point of view of the party, is not limited to the party of CSU, but has also been shown by the two other parties in the Bavarian Parliament at that time. For example, during a hearing with scientific and other experts, one representative of the Green Party reacted to the recommendation of one expert with the statement: "We will consider your suggestions, discuss them and if they... Read more ...


Institutional immunization against knowledge

The heterogeneity of interests reported to us by CSU-politicians, and the consequent maintaining of the existing educational possibilities in Bavaria with only the added option of integrative schooling, could be conveniently combined in the CSU´s decision-making process with the second crucial knowledge element we identified: the present institutional situation, as we already mentioned above. It is evident that a system of separated schools for healthy children on the one hand and all kinds... Read more ...


Knowledge inconsistencies

Our first findings show the principal differences between scientific knowledge production and its political usage. We see a reciprocal discontent between the scientific advisors or experts and the advised politicians: both of them blame the other side with not having enough knowledge to make scientific advising more effective. Read more ...


Knowledge in its media staging

Yet, a sudden surge of political activity in that field really started in the late 1990´s, when media attention was being directed to several cases of “misbehaviour” committed by teachers and principals integrating disabled children and, thus, defying the laws in force at that time: “[..] a child, a mentally disabled child, had been taken out of the [regular] school, the state’s supervisory school authority did this, and put the child in a school for disabled children, although all the people... Read more ...


Targeting knowledge within the process of knowledge transformation

To define, which children are healthy and which are not, who has "regular" and who has "special" needs in Education is traditionally a question of medical and psychological matter. For long times it seemed that these questions can be answered objectively through standardised testing and other examination methods. This seemingly objective knowledge of natural sciences has to be translated in social contents: policy has to regulate the Education of the selected children. The answer in the... Read more ...


Knowledge as practice

The criterion for practical success is connectivity. Knowledge of any kind or origin has to have a special format when entering the political sphere. Read more ...


Context or comparison?

New ways of governing often entail the development of indicators, benchmarks and other instruments of comparison. These risk failing to take into account the specificities of particular interests, particular situations and particular times with particular groups. How and why has comparison become so powerful? How might we take account of the idiosyncrasies of context?


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